2011-07-23 22:40:01来源: 互联网

ASIC: Application Specific Integrated Circuit. 专用IC

CPLD: Complex Programmable Logic Device. 复杂可编程逻辑器件

EDA: Electronic Design Automation. 电子设计自动化

FPGA: Field Programmable Gate Array. 现场可编程 门阵列

GAL: Generic Array Logic. 通用阵列逻辑

HDL: Hardware Description Language. 硬件描述语言

IP: Intelligent Property. 智能模块

PAL: Programmable Array Logic. 可编程阵列逻辑

RTL: Register Transfer Level. 寄存器传输级描述)

SOC: System On a Chip. 片上系统

SLIC: System Level IC. 系统级IC

VHDL: Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language. 超高速集成电路硬件描述语言

  Application-Specific Integrated Circuit. A piece of custom-designed hardware
   in a chip.专用集成电路。一个在一个芯片上定制设计的硬件。
  address bus (地址总线
  A set of electrical lines connected to the processor and all of the peripher
  als withwhich itcommunicates. The address bus is used by the processor to select aspecific memory location or register within a particular peripheral. If the address bus contains n electrical lines the processor can uniquely address up to 2^n such locations.一个连接处理器与所有外设的,用来通讯的电子线路集。地址总线被处理器用来选择在特定外设中的存储器地址或寄存器。如果地址总线有n条电子线路,处理器能唯一寻址高达2^n的地址空间。
  application software(应用软件)
  Describes software modules specific to a particular embedded project. The application software is unlikely to be reusable across embedded platforms simply because each embedded system has a different application.
  A software development tool that translates human-readable assembly language programs into machine-language instructions that the processor can understandand execute.
  assembly language(汇编语言)
  A human-readable form of a processor"s instruction set. Most processor-specific functions must be written in assembly language.
  See board support package.
  见board support package。
  binary semaphore(二元信号)
  A type of semaphore with just two states. Also called a mutex.
  board support package(板卡支持包)
  Part of a software package that is processor or platform-dependent. Typicall
  y sample source code for the board support package is provided by the package developer. The sample code must be modified as necessary compiled and linked with the remainder of the software package.
  bond-out processor (外合处理器)
  A special version of a processor that has some of the internal signals brought out to external pins. A bond-out processor is most often found within an  emulator and is never intended to be used in a production system.
  Breakpoint (断点)
  A location in a program at which execution is to be stopped and control of the processor switched to the debugger. Mechanisms for creating and removing
  breakpoints are provided by most debugging tools.
  Complex Instruction Set Computer. Describes the architecture of a processor family. CISC processors generally feature variable-length instructions multiple addressing formats and contain only a small number of general-purpose   registers. Intel"s 80x86 family is the quintessential example of CISC. Contrast with RISC.
  Central Processing Unit. The part of a processor that executes instructions.
  A software development tool that translates high-level language programs into the machine-language instructions that a particular processor can understand and execute.
  context (上下文)
  The current state of the processor"s registers and flags.
  context switch(上下文切换)
  The process of switching from one task to another in a multitasking operating system. A context switch involves saving the context of the running ask and restoring the previously-saved context of the other. The piece of code that does this is necessarily processor-specific.
  counting semaphore(计数信号)
  A type of semaphore that is used to track multiple resources of the same typ
  e. An attempt to take a counting semaphore is blocked only if all of the ava
  ilable resources are in use. Contrast with binary semaphore.
  critical section(临界段)
  A block of code that must be executed in sequence and without interruption
  to guarantee correct operation of the software. See also race condition.
   A compiler that runs on a different platform than the one for which it produces object code. A cross-compiler runs on a host computer and produces object code for the target.
  Direct Memory Access. A technique for transferring data directly between two peripherals (usually memory and an I/O device) with only minimal intervention by the processor. DMA transfers are managed by a third peripheral called a DMA controller.
  Dynamic Random-Access Memory. A type of RAM that maintains its contents only as long as the data stored in the device is refreshed at regular intervals.
   The refresh cycles are usually performed by a peripheral called a DRAM controller.
  Data bus(数据总线)
  A set of electrical lines connected to the processor and all of the peripher
  als with which it communicates. When the processor wants to read (write) the
   contents of a memory location or register within a particular peripheral it sets the address bus pins appropriately and receives (transmits) the contents on the data bus.
  The time at which a particular set of computations must be completed. See also real-time system.一个特定计算必须被完成的时间。请看实时系统。
  An unwanted software situation in which an entire set of tasks is blocked w  aiting for an event that only a task within the same set can cause. If a deadlock occurs the only solution is to reset the hardware. However it is usually possible to prevent deadlocks altogether by following certain software design practices.
  debug monitor(除错监视程序)
  A piece of embedded software that has been designed specifically for use as a debugging tool. It usually resides in ROM and communicates with a debugger via a serial port or network connection. The debug monitor provides a set of primitive commands to view and modify memory locations and registers create and remove breakpoints and execute your program. The debugger combines these primitives to fulfill higher-level requests like program download and single-step.
  A software development tool used to test and debug embedded software. The debugger runs on a host computer and connects to the target through a serial port or network connection. Using a debugger you can download software to the target for immediate execution. You can also set breakpoints and examine the contents of specific memory locations and registers.
  device driver(设备驱动程序)
  A software module that hides the details of a particular peripheral and prov
  ides a high-level programming interface to it.
  device programmer(设备编程器)
  A tool for programming non-volatile memories and other electrically-programmable devices. Typically the programmable device is inserted into a socket on the device programmer and the contents of a memory buffer are then transferred into it.
  digital signal processor(数字信号处理器
  A device that is similar to a microprocessor except that the internal CPU has been optimized for use in applications involving discrete-time signal processing. In addition to standard microprocessor instructions DSPs usually support a set of complex instructions to perform common signal-processing com putations quickly.Common DSP families are TI"s 320Cxx and Motorola"s 5600x series.
  Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. (Pronounced"Double-E"-PROM.) A type of ROM that can be erased electronically.
  Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. A type of ROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Once erased an EPROM can be reprogrammed with the help of a device programmer.
  embedded system(嵌入式系统)
  A combination of computer hardware and software and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts designed to perform a dedicated function. In some cases embedded systems are part of a larger system or product as is the case
of an anti-lock braking system in a car. Contrast with general-purpose computer.
  Short for In-Circuit Emulator (ICE). A debugging tool that takes the placeof
  -emulates-the processor on your target board. Emulators frequently incorporate a special "bond-out" version of the target processor that allows you to observe and record its internal state as your program is executing. 在线仿真器的简写。一个在你的目标板上放置仿真的处理器的调试工具。仿真器经常和一目标处理器的一种“外合”版本合在一起,这个版本的的处理器充许你运行程序时观察和记录它的内部状态。
  A file containing object code that is ready for execution on the target. All
   that remains is to place the object code into a ROM or download it via a de
  bugging tool. 一个包含准备在目标机上运行的目标代码的文件。放置目标代码到ROM中或通过调试工具下载。
  Embedded software that is stored as object code within a ROM. This name is most common among the users of digital signal processors.
  flash memory (闪存)
  A RAM-ROM hybrid that can be erased and rewritten under software control. Such devices are divided into blocks called sectors that are individually-er
  asable. Flash memory is common in systems that require nonvolatile data storage at very low cost. In some cases a large fash memory may even be used instead of a disk-drive.
  general-purpose computer(通用计算机)
  A combination of computer hardware and software that serves as a
  general-purpose computing platform. For example a personal computer. Contrast with embedded system.
  See high-level language.
  An area of memory that is used for dynamic memory allocation. Calls to malloc and free and the C++ operators new and delete result in run-time manipulation of the heap.
  high-level language(高级语言)
  A language such as C or C++ that is processor-independent. When programming in a high-level language it is possible to concentrate on algorithms and applications without worrying about the details of a particular processor.
  A general-purpose computer that communicates with the target via a serial port or network connection. This term is usually used to distinguish the compu  ter on which the debugger is running from the embedded system that is being developed.
  In-Circuit Emulator. See emulator.
  Input/Output. The interface between a processor and the world around it. The simplest examples are switches (inputs) and LEDs (outputs).
  I/O device(IO设备)
  A piece of hardware that interfaces between the processor and the outside world. Common examples are switches and LEDs serial ports and network controllers.
  I/O map(I/O映射)
  A table or diagram containing the name and address range of each peripheral addressable by the processor within the I/O space. I/O maps are a helpful aid in getting to know the target.
  I/O space(I/O空间)
  A special memory region provided by some processors and generally reserved for the attachment of I/O devices. Memory locations and registers within an I/O space can be accessed only via special instructions. For example processors in the 80x86 family have special I/O space instructions called in and out. Contrast with memory space.
  一个由处理器提供的特殊内存区域,一般为为I/O设备的附件保留。在I/O空间的内存位置和寄存器只能通过特殊的指定进行访问。例如:80X86家族的处理器有叫做in / out的特殊的I/O空间指令。相对内存空间而言。
  See interrupt service routine.
  instruction pointer(指令指针)
  A register in the processor that contains the address of the next instructio
  n to be executed. Also known as a program counter.
  An asynchronous electrical signal from a peripheral to the processor. When the peripheral asserts this signal we say that an interrupt occurs. When an  interrupt occurs the current state of the processor is saved and an interrupt service routine is executed. When the interrupt service routine exits control of the processor is returned to whatever part of the software was previously running.
  interrupt latency(中断延迟)
  The amount of time between the assertion of an interrupt and the start of th
  e associated interrupt service routine.
  interrupt service routine(中断服务程序)
  A piece of software executed in response to a particular interrupt.
  interrupt type(中断类型)
  A unique number associated with each interrupt.
  interrupt vector (中断向量)
  The address of an interrupt service routine.
  interrupt vector table(中断向量表)
  A table containing interrupt vectors and indexed by interrupt type. This table contains the processor"s mapping between interrupts and interrupt service  routines and must be initialized by the programmer.
  intertask communication(进程间通讯)
  A mechanism used by tasks and interrupt service routines to share information and synchronize their access to shared resources. The most common building blocks of intertask communication are semaphores and mutexes.
  An essential part of any multitasking operating system the kernel contains
  just the scheduler and context-switch routine.
  A software development tool that accepts one or more object files as input a nd outputs a relocatable program. The linker is thus run after all of the source files have been compiled or assembled.
  A software development tool that assigns physical addresses to the elocatab le program produced by the linker. This is the last step in the preparation of software for execution by an embedded system and the resulting file is called an executable. In some cases the locator"s function may be hidden with in the linker.
  logic analyzer(逻辑分析仪
  A hardware debugging tool that can be used to capture the logic levels (0 or
   1) of dozens or even hundreds of electrical signals in real-time. Logic analyzers can be quite helpful for debugging hardware problems and complex pr  ocessor-peripheral interactions.
  memory map(内存映射)
  A table or diagram containing the name and address range of each peripheral addressable by the processor within the memory space. Memory maps are a helpful aid in getting to know the target.
  memory-mapped I/O(内存映射I/O)
  An increasingly common hardware design methodology in which I/O devices are placed into the memory space rather than the I/O space. From the processor"s point of view memory-mapped I/O devices look very much like memory devices.
  memory space(内存空间)
  A processor"s standard address space. Contrast with I/O space.
  A microcontroller is very similar to a microprocessor. The main difference is that a microcontroller is designed specifically for use in embedded systems Microcontrollers typically include a CPU memory (a small amount of RAM and/or ROM) and other peripherals on the same chip. Common examples are the 8051 Intel"s 80196 and Motorola"s 68HCxx series.
  A piece of silicon containing a general-purpose CPU. The most common examples are Intel"s 80x86 and Motorola"s 680x0 families.
  一片包含通用CPU的硅片。常见的例子是:Intel80x86、Motorola 680x0系列。
  In the context of this book a debug monitor. However there is a second meaning for this word that is associated with intertask communication. In that context a monitor is a language-level synchronization feature.
  The use of more than one processor in a single computer system. So-called "multiprocessor systems" usually have a common memory space through which the processors can communicate and share data. In addition some multiprocessor systems support parallel processing.
  Multitasking (多任务)
  The execution of multiple software routines in pseudo-parallel. Each routine
represents a separate "thread of execution" and is referred to as a task. The operating system is responsible for simulating parallelism by parceling out the processor"s time.
  A data structure for mutual exclusion also known as a binary semaphore. A mutex is basically just a multitasking-aware binary flag that can be used to
synchronize the activities of multiple tasks. As such it can be used to protect critical sections of the code from interruption and shared resources from simultaneous use.
  mutual exclusion(互斥现象)
  A guarantee of exclusive access to a shared resource. In embedded systems the shared resource is typically a block of memory a global variable or a set of registers. Mutual exclusion can be achieved with the use of a semaphore or mutex.
  Non-Volatile Random-Access Memory. A type of RAM that retains its data even when the system is powered down. NVRAM frequently consists of an SRAM and a long-life battery.
  See one-time programmable.
  object code(目标代码)
  A set of processor-readable opcodes and data. The output of compilers assemblers linkers and locators are files containing object code.
  object file(目标文件)
  A file containing object code. The output of a compiler or assembler.
  one-time programmable(一次可编程的)
  Any programmable device like a PROM that can be programmed just once by th
  e end user. However this term is used almost exclusively to refer to microc  ontrollers with on-chip PROM.
  A sequence of bits that is recognized by the processor as one of the instruc
  tions in its instruction set.
  operating system(操作系统)
  A piece of software that makes multitasking possible. An operating system ty
pically consists of a set of function calls or software interrupts and a periodic clock tick. The operating system is responsible for deciding which task should be using the processor at a given time and for controlling access to shared resources.
  A hardware debugging tool that allows you to view the voltage on one or more electrical lines. For example you might use an oscilloscope to determine if a particular interrupt is currently asserted.
  Programmable Read-Only Memory. A type of ROM that can be written (programmed) with a device programmer. These memory devices can be programmed only once so they are sometimes referred to as write-once or one-time programmable devices.
  parallel processing(并行进程)
  The ability to apply two or more processors to a single computation.
  Peripheral (外设)
  A piece of hardware other than the processor usually memory or an I/O device. The peripheral may reside within the same chip as the processor in which case it is called an internal peripheral.
  physical address(物理地址)
  The actual address that is placed on the address bus when accessing a memory location or register.
  A scheduler is said to be preemptive if it allows the running task to be sus
  pended when a higher-priority task becomes ready. Non-preemptive schedulers are easier to implement but less appropriate for embedded systems.
  A method of interfacing with hardware that involves repeatedly reading a status register until the device has reached the awaited state. Device drivers   are either polling or interrupt-driven with the latter being more generally   preferred.
  The relative importance of one task compared to another.
  priority inversion(优先转置)
  An unwanted software situation in which a high-priority task is delayed while waiting for access to a shared resource that is not even being used at the time. For all practical purposes the priority of this task has been lowered during the delay period.
  A word that is often confused with task or thread. The crucial distinction is that all of the tasks in a system share a common memory space. Processes on the other hand always have their own private memory space. Processes are   common in multi-user systems but are rarely if ever found in embedded systems.
  A generic term that does not distinction between microprocessor microcontroller and digital signal processor.
  processor family(处理器族)
  A set of related processors usually successive generations from the same manufacturer. For example Intel"s 80x86 family began with the 8086 and now in
cludes the 80186 286 386 486 Pentium and many others. The later models
in a family are typically backwards-compatible with the ones that came before.
  一个相关的处理器集,常常连续地从一个生产商产生。例如:Intel"s 80x86族开始从8086开始,现在有80186 286 386 486 Pentium及其他。在一个族中,稍后的产品典型地向后兼容在它以前生产的产品。
  A piece of software that is independent of the processor on which it will be
   run. Most programs that can be written in a high-level language are processor-independent. Contrast with processor-specific.
  A piece of software that is highly dependent on the processor on which it wi ll be run. Such code must usually be written in assembly language. Contrast   with processor-independent.


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